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Table of Primel time units

Primel Unit
(and Abbrev)
Colloquialism
Derivation TGM Equivalent SI & USC Equivalents Older
Colloquialisms
hexqua′timel
(h↑′Tmℓ)
day
day
(Dy)
bina-pentquaTim
(b•p↑Tm)

20z=24d hours
Ӿ00z=1440d minutes
42,000z=86,400d seconds

pentqua′timel
(p↑′Tmℓ)
′dwell
unciaday
(u↓Dy)
bina-quadquaTim
(b•q↑Tm)

2 hours
Ӿ0z=120d minutes
4200z=7200d seconds

stage
duor
bihour

quadqua′timel
(q↑′Tmℓ)
′breather
biciaday
(b↓Dy)
bina-triquaTim
(b•t↑Tm)

Ӿz=10d minutes
420z=600d seconds

′segment
temin
decaminute

triqua′timel
(t↑′Tmℓ)
′trice
triciaday
(t↓Dy)
bina-biquaTim
b•b↑Tm)

42z=50d seconds

′trice
minette

biqua′timel
(b↑′Tmℓ)
′lull
quadciaday
(q↓Dy)
binaunquaTim
(b•u↑Tm)

4.2z=4.16d seconds

′waltzing
grovic

unqua′timel
(u↑′Tmℓ)
′twinkling
pentciaday
(p↓Dy)
binaTim
(b•Tm)

0.42z=0.3472d seconds

dovic

′timel
(′Tmℓ)
′jiff
hexciaday
(h↓Dy)
binaunciaTim
(b•u↓Tm)
0.042z=0.02893518d seconds

vic


Fundamental Reality: The Mean Solar Day

The ′timel, or ′jiff

The mean solar day is a fundamental reality of human life. Accordingly, Primel uses a simple dozenal power of the day, the hexciaday (10-6z days) as its base unit of time, the ′timel. This comes out to (50/1728)d or (1/34.56)d of a second (0.042z s, or 0.02893518d s), making this quite a fleeting instant of time, a bit shorter than the frame period for typical movie film, and hence just beyond human perception. This happens to be very close to the vibration period for a C♯0 musical note. For this reason, dozenalists in the past have called this a "vic" (short for "vi-bration of C"). However, perhaps we can do better than this, and find an existing English word that captures how transitory this unit is: Primel proposes to nickname this the ′jiff.

Although the ′jiff is a very short interval indeed, it is nevertheless a useful quantity for precision scientific and engineering purposes. Not to mention sports, especially the Olympic variety, where a down-to-the-′jiff time might mean the difference between a medal made of bronze or silver, and one of gold! In any event, given the principle of 1:1 correspondence of base units Primel adheres to, this sizing for the ′timel will have interesting effects on the rest of the units in the metrology.

The unqua′timel, or ′twinkling

On the other hand, the unqual powers of the ′timel do fall within the range of human perception, starting with the unqua′timel (101z ′timels). This is equivalent to the pentciaday (10-5z days), which comes out to (50/144)d of a second (0.42z s, or 0.3472d s). In the past, dozenalists have dubbed this unit the "dovic" (short for "a dozen vics"). But perhaps we can find a nickname that is a little more intuitive. Note that this unit is a little over a third of a second, and therefore about the time it takes to blink an eye. Accordingly, Primel proposes to colloquialize this unit as the ′twinkling. So a dozen ′jiffs make a ′twinkling.

The biqua′timel, or ′lull

The biqua′timel (102z ′timels) is equivalent to the quadciaday (10-4z days). This comes out to (50/12)d of a second (4.2z s, or 4.16d s). In the past, dozenalists have called this unit the "grovic" (short for "a gross of vics"). Again, let's see if we can be a bit more creative. A biqua′timel counts out a dozen ′twinklings in slightly over four seconds. Primel proposes to nickname this interval the ′lull, since a gap of this duration between utterances would be perceived as a (possibly embarrasing) lull in the conversation. So a dozen ′twinklings make a ′lull.

The triqua′timel, or ′trice

The triqua′timel (103z ′timels) is equivalent to the triciaday (10-3z days). This comes out to exactly 50d seconds (42z s), which makes it a minute-like quantity, although a bit shorter. For that reason, dozenalists in the past have suggested naming this a "minette". However, perhaps we could find a name that is a little less beholden to the ancient Babylonian sexagesimal system. Primel proposes to nickname this unit the ′trice. This word already conveys the sense of a brief moment of time, but it also is something of a pun on the fact that this unit is also a triciaday. So a ′trice consists of a dozen ′lulls. It is exactly intermediate on the logarithmic scale between the day and the ′timel: A day consists of 1000z (1728d) ′trices, and a ′trice consists of 1000z (1728d) ′jiffs.

The quadqua′timel, or ′breather

The quadqua′timel (104z ′timels) is equivalent to the biciaday (10-2z days). This comes out to exactly 600d seconds (420z s), or ten minutes. This is equivalent to a dozen ′trices. It's interesting to note that the decimal figure for "10d minutes" resembles the equivalent dozenal figure for "10z ′trices". (Twenty (20d) minutes is equivalent to two dozen (20z) ′trices, thirty (30d) minutes is equivalent to three dozen (30z) ′trices, and so forth.) In the past, dozenalists have suggested naming this time unit the "temin", as a corruption of "ten minutes". However, deriving a name for a dozenal unit from a decimal word ("ten") and from a unit ("minute") not appearing as part of a dozenal metrology, does not seem very apt. The same argument can be leveled against an SDN-compatible construct such as "decaminute". Instead, Primel proposes nicknaming this the ′breather, given that is a typical duration that one might "take a breather" -- as in the common idiom "take ten" (that is, ten minutes).

The pentqua′timel, or ′dwell

The pentqua′timel (105z ′timels) is equivalent to the unciaday (10-1z days), a dozenth of a day. This comes out to exactly 120d minutes (Ӿ0z min), or two hours. In the past, dozenalists have suggested naming this time unit the "duor", as a corruption of "dual hour". However, this would be just as derivative as "temin". The same argument could be leveled against a more SDN-compatible construct such as "bi-hour". A nickname for this unit that could stand on its own would be preferable. Primel proposes nicknaming this the ′dwell. This is an oblique pun on the word "dual" (referring to the "duor"). It is also an oblique allusion to astrological usage. In astrology, the sky relative to any observer is imagined to be divided into a dozen sectors along the ecliptic, known as "houses" of the Zodiac. During the course of the day, the sun appears to move through each of these sectors, "dwelling" in each "house" for 2 hours. Although Primel does not endorse the superstition of astrology, the association is a colorful one. And besides, if we spend a solid two hours contemplating or discussing the same topic, we might fairly be described as "dwelling" on it.

The hexqua′timel, or day

Finally, the hexqua′timel (106z ′timels) is, of course, the mean solar day. Making the day a simple dozenal power of the ′timel provides certain benefits for applications, such as astronomy, that need to relate larger amounts of time, expressed in days, to smaller amounts of time expressed in, say, ′trices or ′jiffs. As long as dozenal quantities and Primel units are used, all that is needed is to make the proper shift of radix points. There are no extraneous factors to multiply or divide by.


Relation of Primel and TGM time units

Although TGM also considers the mean solar day a "fundamental reality", its base unit of time, the Tim, is actually a simple power of the half day, or "semiday", rather than the whole day. In fact, it is equivalent to the pentciasemiday, or 10-5z half-days. In Primel terms, the Tim is equivalent to 6 ′timels, and the ′timel is equivalent to 2 unciaTim.

Although the TGM time units are not whole dozenal powers of the ′timel, each is a simple multiple of one, so we could incorporate them into Primel as auxiliary units:

Derivation TGM Name
Colloquialism
Primel Equivalent
Colloquialism
SI & USC Equivalents
semiday pentquaTim
(p↑Tm)
clock
hexa‑pentqua′timel
(h•p↑′Tmℓ)
hexa′dwell

10z=12d hours
500z=720d minutes
21,000z=43,200d seconds

unciasemiday quadquaTim
(q↑Tm)
hour
hexa-quadqua′timel
(h•q↑′Tmℓ)
hexa′breather

1 hour
50z=60d minutes
2100z=3600d seconds

biciasemiday triquaTim
(t↑Tm)
block
hexa-triqua′timel
(h•t↑′Tmℓ)
hexa′trice

5 minutes
210z=300d seconds

triciasemiday biquaTim
(b↑Tm)
bictic
hexa-biqua′timel
(h•b↑′Tmℓ)
hexa′lull

21z=25d seconds

quadciasemiday unquaTim
(u↑Tm)
unctic
hexa-unqua′timel
(h•u↑′Tmℓ)
hexa′twinkling

2.1z=2.083d seconds

pentciasemiday Tim
(Tm)
tick
hexa′timel
(h•′Tmℓ)
hexa′jiff

0.21z=0.17361d seconds


Semidays and ′phases of the day

Observe that we can bisect the day into two semidays, each 6 ′dwells long (equivalent to 60z ′breathers, or 600z ′trices, or 10z (12d) hours, or 500z (720d) minutes). But where should we make the partition? The modern Western convention, of course, is to divide the day at noon and midnight, yielding the familiar Ante Meridiem (A.M.) and Post Meridiem (P.M.) semidays. These are Latin for "Before Mid-Day" and "After Mid-Day".

However, some cultures (notably the Abrahamic religions) have traditionally bisected the day at sunrise and sunset, yielding Daylight and Nighttime semidays. In Latin, these might be called Diurnum and Nocturnum.

The traditional approach of these cultures is to observe the actual appearance and disappearance of the sun across the horizon, marking sunrise and sunset on a daily basis. This makes the division between Diurnum and Nocturnum, and the lengths of both, a complex, varying function of latitude, longitude, season of the year, Daylight Savings Time, and the effects of twilight atmospheric refraction. For that matter, the actual points of "mid-day", when the Sun is at zenith, and "mid-night", when the Sun is at nadir, are just as subject to daily and seasonal fluctuation. For simplicity however, Primel will assume "nominal" or "average" times for these events, with "mean sunrise" and "mean sunset" deemed to occur exactly half-way between "nominal midnight" and "nominal noon".

But which way should we divide the day? Interesting question. Dozenal base provides easy divisibility by 4 -- so what if we bisected the day both ways? Then this would divide the day into quarters, analogous to the four seasons of the year or the four phases of the Moon. Primel proposes calling these quarters ′phases of the day. Each would be 3 ′dwells long (equivalent to 30z ′breathers, or 300z ′trices, or 6 hours, or 260z (360d) minutes).

We can give each ′phase of the day a distinct name. One way to do this is simply to use the cross-product of the names of the two orthogonal bisections. But it turns out that English already has suitable names for these periods:

′PHASES OF THE DAY
English Name Latin Phrase
Engish Translation
Period Primel ′Trices Sexagesimal Time
Overnight Nocturnum Ante Meridiem
Nighttime Before Mid-Day
Nominal midnight
to Mean sunrise
000z -
2ƐƐz
12:00d A.M. -
05:59d A.M.
Morning Diurnum Ante Meridiem
Daylight Before Mid-Day
Mean sunrise
to Nominal noon
300z -
5ƐƐz
06:00d A.M. -
11:59d A.M.
Afternoon Diurnum Post Meridiem
Daylight After Mid-Day
Nominal noon
to Mean sunset
600z -
8ƐƐz
12:00d P.M. -
05:59d P.M.
Evening Nocturnum Post Meridiem
Nighttime After Mid-Day
Mean sunset
to Nominal midnight
900z -
ƐƐƐz
06:00d P.M. -
11:59d P.M.

Hence the semidays are combinations of two adjacent ′phases each:

′SEMIDAYS
Latin Name
Engish Translation
Constituents Period Primel
′Trices
Sexagesimal
Time
Diurnum
Daylight
Morning + Afternoon Mean sunrise
to Mean sunset
300z -
8ƐƐz
06:00d A.M. -
05:59d P.M.
Nocturnum
Nighttime
Evening + Overnight Mean sunset
to Mean sunrise
900z -
2ƐƐz
06:00d P.M. -
05:59d A.M.
Ante Meridiem

 (A.M.)
Before Mid-Day

Overnight + Morning Nominal midnight
to Nominal noon
000z -
5ƐƐz
12:00d A.M. -
11:59d A.M.
Post Meridiem

 (P.M.)
After Mid-Day

Afternoon + Evening Nominal noon
to Nominal midnight
600z -
ƐƐƐz
12:00d P.M. -
11:59d P.M.

Note that a ′phase is actually a trina′dwell or trina-pentqua′timel (3×105z ′timels). Hence we can further divide each ′phase into three ′dwells (pentqua′timels) and assign these ′dwells colloquial names: Early, Mid, and Late.

′DWELLS OF THE DAY
′Phase ′Dwell
(Unciaday)
Primel
′Trices
TGM
Bictics
Hours:
′Trices
Sexagesimal
Time
O
V
E
R
N
I
G
H
T
0 Early
Overnight
000z -
05Ɛz
0000z -
00ƐƐz
00:00z -
00:5Ɛz
12:00d A.M. -
12:59d A.M.
060z -
0ƐƐz
0100z -
01ƐƐz
01:00z -
01:5Ɛz
01:00d A.M. -
01:59d A.M.
1 Mid
Overnight
100z -
15Ɛz
0200z -
02ƐƐz
02:00z -
02:5Ɛz
02:00d A.M. -
02:59d A.M.
160z -
1ƐƐz
0300z -
03ƐƐz
03:00z -
03:5Ɛz
03:00d A.M. -
03:59d A.M.
2 Late
Overnight
200z -
25Ɛz
0400z -
04ƐƐz
04:00z -
04:5Ɛz
04:00d A.M. -
04:59d A.M.
260z -
2ƐƐz
0500z -
05ƐƐz
05:00z -
05:5Ɛz
05:00d A.M. -
05:59d A.M.
M
O
R
N
I
N
G
3 Early
Morning
300z -
35Ɛz
0600z -
06ƐƐz
06:00z -
06:5Ɛz
06:00d A.M. -
06:59d A.M.
360z -
3ƐƐz
0700z -
07ƐƐz
07:00z -
07:5Ɛz
07:00d A.M. -
07:59d A.M.
4 Mid
Morning
400z -
45Ɛz
0800z -
08ƐƐz
08:00z -
08:5Ɛz
08:00d A.M. -
08:59d A.M.
460z -
4ƐƐz
0900z -
09ƐƐz
09:00z -
09:5Ɛz
09:00d A.M. -
09:59d A.M.
5 Late
Morning
500z -
55Ɛz
0Ӿ00z -
0ӾƐƐz
0Ӿ:00z -
0Ӿ:5Ɛz
10:00d A.M. -
10:59d A.M.
560z -
5ƐƐz
0Ɛ00z -
0ƐƐƐz
0Ɛ:00z -
0Ɛ:5Ɛz
11:00d A.M. -
11:59d A.M.
A
F
T
E
R
N
O
O
N
6 Early
Afternoon
600z -
65Ɛz
1000z -
10ƐƐz
10:00z -
10:5Ɛz
12:00d P.M. -
12:59d P.M.
660z -
6ƐƐz
1100z -
11ƐƐz
11:00z -
11:5Ɛz
01:00d P.M. -
01:59d P.M.
7 Mid
Afternoon
700z -
75Ɛz
1200z -
12ƐƐz
12:00z -
12:5Ɛz
02:00d P.M. -
02:59d P.M.
760z -
7ƐƐz
1300z -
13ƐƐz
13:00z -
13:5Ɛz
03:00d P.M. -
03:59d P.M.
8 Late
Afternoon
800z -
85Ɛz
1400z -
14ƐƐz
14:00z -
14:5Ɛz
04:00d P.M. -
04:59d P.M.
860z -
8ƐƐz
1500z -
15ƐƐz
15:00z -
15:5Ɛz
05:00d P.M. -
05:59d P.M.
E
V
E
N
I
N
G
9 Early
Evening
900z -
95Ɛz
1600z -
16ƐƐz
16:00z -
16:5Ɛz
06:00d P.M. -
06:59d P.M.
960z -
9ƐƐz
1700z -
17ƐƐz
17:00z -
17:5Ɛz
07:00d P.M. -
07:59d P.M.
Ӿ Mid
Evening
Ӿ00z -
Ӿ5Ɛz
1800z -
18ƐƐz
18:00z -
18:5Ɛz
08:00d P.M. -
08:59d P.M.
Ӿ60z -
ӾƐƐz
1900z -
19ƐƐz
19:00z -
19:5Ɛz
09:00d P.M. -
09:59d P.M.
Ɛ Late
Evening
Ɛ00z -
Ɛ5Ɛz
1Ӿ00z -
1ӾƐƐz
1Ӿ:00z -
1Ӿ:5Ɛz
10:00d P.M. -
10:59d P.M.
Ɛ60z -
ƐƐƐz
1Ɛ00z -
1ƐƐƐz
1Ɛ:00z -
1Ɛ:5Ɛz
11:00d P.M. -
11:59d P.M.

In a Primel world, people would likely tell time in terms of the ′trices count. Since the ′trice is 5/6 of a minute, this gives accuracy to the minute and better, using only three dozenal digits. Conventional 12d-hour clock time requires four digits plus an indicator of which semiday it is, A.M. or P.M. TGM time in bictics does better in that the hour is encoded in a single digit and the top digit encodes the semiday (0=A.M., 1=P.M.). However, one more digit only gives accuracy down to the nearest 5-minute (6-′trice) block. To get at least minute accuracy in TGM requires 4 digits. But because the bictic is half the size of the ′trice, and only 25d seconds long, this provides too much accuracy, at the expense of taking up an additional digit. Bottom line, the Primel scheme is the most compact.

The so-called "9-to-5" job would start at 460z ′trices, half-way through Mid Morning ′dwell, and would end at 860z ′trices, half-way through Late Afternoon ′dwell. This gives a total duration of 400z ′trices or 4 ′dwells (8 hours). Then again, in a Primel world, businesses might opt to start and end the work day on round ′dwells, let's say 400z to 800z ′trices (8:00d A.M. to 4:00d P.M., or Mid Morning through Mid Afternoon), or perhaps even 500z to 900z ′trices (10:00d A.M. to 6:00d P.M., or Late Morning through Late Afternoon). In the latter case, this might be referred to as a "5-to-9" job, standing the conventional term on its head.


Colloquialism for various fractions of the day

Divisor Primel
′Trices
Sexagesimal
Duration
Colloquialisms
1 1000z (24h 00m 00s)d day
2 600z (12h 00m 00s)d clock
3 400z (8h 00m 00s)d shift
4 300z (6h 00m 00s)d phase
6 200z (4h 00m 00s)d watch
8 160z (3h 00m 00s)d sesqui′dwell
sesquell
unhexa′breather
9 140z (2h 40m 00s)d unquadra′breather
10z 100z (2h 00m 00s)d ′dwell
14z 90z (1h 30m 00s)d ennea′breather
sesquihour
dodrant′dwell
′dodrell
16z 80z (1h 20m 00s)d octa′breather
bes′dwell
20z 60z (1h 00m 00s)d hour
semi′dwell
hexa′breather
28z 46z (45m 00s)d dodrant-hour
quadhexa′trice
30z 40z (40m 00s)d quadra′breather
bes-hour
40z 30z (30m 00s)d slot
bell
trina′breather
semihour
quarter′dwell
60z 20z (20m 00s)d bina′breather
80z 16z (15m 00s)d semibell
quarter-hour
octant′dwell
triblock
100z 10z (10m 00s)d ′breather
200z 6z (5m 00s)d block
semi′breather
hexa′trice
300z 4z (3m 20s)d quadra′trice
400z 3z (2m 30s)d trina′trice
600z 2z (1m 40s)d bina′trice
1000z 1z (50s)d ′trice


Additional auxiliary primel time units

Here are a few additional auxiliary units that are all interesting multiples of some dozenal power of the ′timel.

Auxiliary Unit Colloquialism Customary and SI Equivalents
trina′jiff
quarter′twinkling
pentcia′phase
′flicker 0.106z=0.086805d seconds
trina′twinkling
quarter′lull
quadcia′phase
′beat 1.06z=1.0416d seconds
trina′lull
quarter′trice
tricia′phase
′verse 10.6z=12.5d seconds
trina′trice
quarter′breather
bicia′phase
′passage 106z=150d seconds
trina′breather
quarter′dwell
uncia′phase
′bell 1,060z=1,800d seconds
trina′dwell
quarter-day
′phase 10,600z=21,600d seconds
septaday week 1 week

7 days

binaweek

unbinaday

fortnight 2 weeks

12z=14d days

biquadraday short February 24z=28d days
bipentaday leap February 25z=29d days
bihexaday short Gregorian month 26z=30d days
biseptaday long Gregorian month 27z=31d days
bihexpentaday Gregorian year 265z=365d days
bihexhexaday Gregorian leap year 266z=366d days
ununiweek

septseptaday

Perennial Calendar regular quarter 11z=13d weeks

77z=91d days

unbinaweek

octbinaday

Perennial Calendar leaping quarter 12z=14d weeks

82z=98d days

quadquadraweek

bihexquadraday

Perennial Calendar year 44z=52d weeks

264z=364d days

quadpentaweek

bihexlevaday

Perennial-Calendar leap year 45z=53d weeks

26Ɛz=371d days


Dozenal perennial calendars

Dozenal Symmetry 454 calendar

A Perennial Calendar can be constructed where every year and month starts on the same day of the week and consists of a whole number of weeks, and where a leap year adds a leap week onto the end of the year, rather than a leap day in February. The pattern of leap years would be quite different, of course. When such a calendar is interpreted in dozenal, there's a nice sort of correspondence between how each month is either 24z or 2Ɛz days and how each year is either 264z or 26Ɛz days; or equivalently, how each month is either 4 or 5 weeks and how each year is either 44z or 45z weeks. (This is essentially a dozenalization of Irv Bromberg's Symmetry 454 Calendar.)

The following calendar is completely in dozenal base.

First Quarter      Second Quarter      Third Quarter      Fourth Quarter
Wk January Wk April Wk July Wk October
M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S
01 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 12 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 23 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 34 01 02 03 04 05 06 07
02 08 09 10 11 12 13 08 09 10 11 12 24 08 09 10 11 12 35 08 09 10 11 12
03 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 14 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 25 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 36 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
04 20 21 22 23 24 15 20 21 22 23 24 26 20 21 22 23 24 37 20 21 22 23 24
       
Wk February Wk May Wk August Wk November
M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S
05 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 16 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 27 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 38 01 02 03 04 05 06 07
06 08 09 10 11 12 17 08 09 10 11 12 28 08 09 10 11 12 39 08 09 10 11 12
07 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 18 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 29 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
08 20 21 22 23 24 19 20 21 22 23 24 20 21 22 23 24 20 21 22 23 24
09 25 26 27 28 29 25 26 27 28 29 25 26 27 28 29 40 25 26 27 28 29
       
Wk March Wk June Wk September Wk December
M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 30 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 41 01 02 03 04 05 06 07
08 09 10 11 12 20 08 09 10 11 12 31 08 09 10 11 12 42 08 09 10 11 12
10 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 21 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 32 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 43 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
11 20 21 22 23 24 22 20 21 22 23 24 33 20 21 22 23 24 44 20 21 22 23 24
   
Wk Leap Week
M T W T F S S
45 25 26 27 28 29


Dozenal Symmetry 676 calendar

A variation of the Perennial Calendar would give months either 26z or 27z days, but would make each quarter and year a whole number of weeks, with a leap week added periodically at the end of the year. (This is essentially a dozenalization of Irv Bromberg's Symmatry 010 Calendar.)

First Quarter      Second Quarter      Third Quarter      Fourth Quarter
Wk January Wk April Wk July Wk October
M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S
01 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 12 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 23 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 34 01 02 03 04 05 06 07
02 08 09 10 11 12 13 08 09 10 11 12 24 08 09 10 11 12 35 08 09 10 11 12
03 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 14 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 25 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 36 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
04 20 21 22 23 24 15 20 21 22 23 24 26 20 21 22 23 24 37 20 21 22 23 24
05 25 26 16 25 26 27 25 26 38 25 26
       
Wk February Wk May Wk August Wk November
M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S
05 01 02 03 04 05 16 01 02 03 04 05 27 01 02 03 04 05 38 01 02 03 04 05
06 06 07 08 09 10 17 06 07 08 09 10 28 06 07 08 09 10 39 06 07 08 09 10
07 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 29 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
08 18 19 20 21 22 19 18 19 20 21 22 18 19 20 21 22 18 19 20 21 22
09 23 24 25 26 27 23 24 25 26 27 23 24 25 26 27 40 23 24 25 26 27
       
Wk March Wk June Wk September Wk December
M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S
09 01 02 01 02 01 02 40 01 02
03 04 05 06 07 08 09 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 30 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 41 03 04 05 06 07 08 09
10 11 12 13 14 20 10 11 12 13 14 31 10 11 12 13 14 42 10 11 12 13 14
10 15 16 17 18 19 21 15 16 17 18 19 32 15 16 17 18 19 43 15 16 17 18 19
11 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 22 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 33 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 44 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
   
Wk Leap Week
M T W T F S S
45 01 02 03 04 05 06 07


Dozenal orders of magnitude: time

This is a Primel version of the Time (Orders of magnitude) page on Wikipedia.

Factor (′Tmℓ) Multiple SI Equivalent Comparative examples & common units
10-33z 1 tritricia′timel
(tt↓′Tmℓ)
2.362×10-44d s 2.352z tt↓′Tmℓ: one Plank Time, the briefest physically meaningful span of time. It is the unit of time in the natural units system known as Planck units.
10-1Ӿz 1 undeccia′timel
(ud↓′Tmℓ)
5.2×10-26d s 5.9z ud↓′Tmℓ: mean life of W and Z bosons

9.6z ud↓′Tmℓ: time for top quark decay, according to the Standard Model.

10-19z 1 unenncia′timel
(ud↓′Tmℓ)
6.290×10-25d s 1.7z ue↓′Tmℓ: time taken for a quark to emit a gluon.
10-18z 1 unoctcia′timel
(uo↓′Tmℓ)
7.547×10-24d s 3.1z uo↓′Tmℓ: half-life of hydrogen-7.
10-17z 1 unseptcia′timel
(us↓′Tmℓ)
9.057×10-23d s
10-16z 1 unhexcia′timel
(uh↓′Tmℓ)
1.087×10-21d s 6.5z uh↓′Tmℓ: half-life of helium-9's outer neutron in the second nuclear halo.
10-15z 1 unpentcia′timel
(up↓′Tmℓ)
1.304×10-20d s 1.4z up↓′Tmℓ:
10-14z 1 unquadcia′timel
(uq↓′Tmℓ)
1.565×10-19d s 1.Ɛz uq↓′Tmℓ: approximate typical cycle time of X-rays, on the boundary between hard and soft X-rays.

3.2z uq↓′Tmℓ: current resolution of tools used to measure speed of chemical bonding.

10-13z 1 untricia′timel
(ut↓′Tmℓ)
1.878×10-18d s 6.5z ut↓′Tmℓ: shortest measured period of time.
10-12z 1 unbicia′timel
(ub↓′Tmℓ)
2.254×10-17d s
10-11z 1 ununcia′timel
(uu↓′Tmℓ)
2.704×10-16d s 3.8z uu↓′Tmℓ: cycle time for 390d nanometer light; transition from visible light to ultraviolet; light travels 0.3d micrometers.
10-10z 1 unnilcia′timel
(un↓′Tmℓ)
3.245×10-15d s
10z 1 levcia′timel
(ℓ↓′Tmℓ)
3.894×10-14d s
10z 1 deccia′timel
(d↓′Tmℓ)
4.673×10-13d s 2.2z d↓′Tmℓ: half-life of a bottom quark; light travels 0.3d millimeter (mm).

8.7z d↓′Tmℓ: time to execute one machine instruction by an IBM Silicon-Germanium transistor.

10-9z 1 enncia′timel
(e↓′Tmℓ)
5.608×10-12d s
10-8z 1 octcia′timel
(o↓′Tmℓ)
6.729×10-11d s
10-7z 1 septcia′timel
(s↓′Tmℓ)
8.075×10-10d s 1.3z s↓′Tmℓ: time to execute one machine cycle by a 1GHz microprocessor; light travels 30 centimeters (12d in)
10-6z 1 hexcia′timel
(h↓′Tmℓ)
9.690×10-9d s
10-5z 1 pentcia′timel
(p↓′Tmℓ)
1.163×10-7d s 8.7z p↓′Tmℓ: time to execute one machine cycle by an Intel 80186 microprocessor
10-4z 1 quadcia′timel
(q↓′Tmℓ)
1.395×10-6d s 1.3-Ɛ.7z q↓′Tmℓ: time to execute one machine cycle by a 1960sd minicomputer
10-3z 1 tricia′timel
(t↓′Tmℓ)
1.674×10-5d s
10-2z 1 bicia′timel
(b↓′Tmℓ)
2.009×10-4d s 5.0z b↓′Tmℓ: time for a neuron in human brain to fire one impulse and return to rest
10-1z 1 uncia′timel
(u↓′Tmℓ)
2.411×10-3d s 1.8-3.4z u↓′Tmℓ: typical seek time for a computer hard disk.
100z 1 ′timel
(′Tmℓ)
2.894×10-2d s
101z 1 unqua′timel
(u↑′Tmℓ)
3.472×10-1d s 0.4-1.2z u↑′Tmℓ: blink of an eye

1.0z ′UTmℓ: 1 ′twinkling

102z 1 biqua′timel
(b↑′Tmℓ)
4.167d s 1.0z b↑′Tmℓ: 1 ′lull
103z 1 triqua′timel
(t↑′Tmℓ)
5×101d s 1.0z t↑′Tmℓ: 1 ′trice
104z 1 quadqua′timel
(q↑′Tmℓ)
6×102d s 1.0z q↑′Tmℓ: 1 ′breather
105z 1 pentqua′timel
(p↑′Tmℓ)
7.2×103d s 1.0z p↑′Tmℓ: 1 ′dwell
106z 1 hexqua′timel
(h↑′Tmℓ)
8.64×104d s 1.0z h↑′Tmℓ: 1 day

7.0z h↑′Tmℓ: 7 days

107z 1 septqua′timel
(s↑′Tmℓ)
1.037×106d s 2.6z s↑′Tmℓ: approximately 1 month
108z 1 octqua′timel
(o↑′Tmℓ)
1.244×107d s 2.6z o↑′Tmℓ: approximately 1 year
109z 1 ennqua′timel
(e↑′Tmℓ)
1.493×108d s
10Ӿz 1 ′decqua′timel
(d↑′Tmℓ)
1.792×109d s 1.2z d↑′Tmℓ: average human life expectancy at birth (2011d (11Ɛ7z) estimate)

1.9z d↑′Tmℓ: approximately 1 century
2.6z d↑′Tmℓ: approximately 1 biquennium

10Ɛz 1 levqua′timel
(ℓ↑′Tmℓ)
2.150×1010z s 1.6z ℓ↑′Tmℓ: approximately 1 millennium

2.6z ℓ↑′Tmℓ: approximately 1 triquennium

1010z 1 unnilqua′timel
(un↑′Tmℓ)
2.580×1011d s
1011z 1 ununqua′timel
(uu↑′Tmℓ)
3.096×1012d s 2.0z uu↑′Tmℓ: time since the appearance of Homo sapiens (approximately)
1012z 1 unbiqua′timel
(ub↑′Tmℓ)
3.715×1013d s
1013z 1 untriqua′timel
(ut↑′Tmℓ)
4.458×1014d s
1014z 1 unquadqua′timel
(uq↑′Tmℓ)
5.350×1015d s 1.4-1.6z uq↑′Tmℓ: 1 galactic year (63-70 hexquennia)
1015z 1 unpentqua′timel
(up↑′Tmℓ)
6.420×1016d s 2.29z up↑′Tmℓ: the age of the Earth

2.2Ɛz up↑′Tmℓ: approximate age of the Solar system and the Sun
6.8z up↑′Tmℓ: approximate age of the universe
6.Ӿz up↑′Tmℓ: half-life of thorium-232 (thorium-128)

1016z 1 unhexqua′timel
(uh↑′Tmℓ)
7.704×1017d s
1017z 1 unseptqua′timel
(us↑′Tmℓ)
9.244×1018d s
1018z 1 unoctqua′timel
(uo↑′Tmℓ)
1.109×1020d s 2.Ӿz uo↑′Tmℓ: estimated lifespan of a 0.1d solar mass red dwarf star
1019z 1 unennqua′timel
(ue↑′Tmℓ)
1.331×1021d s 2.3z ue↑′Tmℓ: estimated duration of Stelliferous Era

7.4z ue↑′Tmℓ: the lifetime of Brahma in Hindu mythology

10z 1 undecqua′timel
(ud↑′Tmℓ)
1.597×1022d s
10z 1 unlevqua′timel
(uℓ↑′Tmℓ)
1.917×1023d s 8.7z uℓ↑′Tmℓ: estimated half-life of the meta-stable (20983Bi)d = (155Bi)z radioactive isotope
1020z 1 binilqua′timel
(bn↑′Tmℓ)
2.300×1024z s 2.3z pe↑′Tmℓ: time required for a 1 solar mass black hole to evaporate completely due to Hawking radiation, if nothing more falls in.

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